Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. A study and evaluation of internal control made in connection with an annual audit is usually not sufficient
to express an opinion on an entity's internal control because
a. Weaknesses in the system may go unnoticed during the audit engagement.
b. A study and evaluation of internal control is not necessarily made during an audit engagement.
c. Only those controls of interest to the auditor are reviewed, tested, and evaluated.
d. Internal controls can change each year.
____ 2. Of the following statements, which one does not describe a distinction between the auditing standards and the attestation standards?
a. Unlike the auditing standards, the attestation standards do not require the auditor to obtain an understanding of the client's internal control system
b. The attestation standards are broader in coverage than the auditing standards.
c. In performing an attest engagement, the CPA need not be independent.
d. In an attest engagement, unlike an audit, generally accepted accounting principles are not the standard used to measure the reasonableness of assertions.
____ 3. Each page of a non-public entity's financial statements reviewed by an accountant should include the following reference:
a. See Accountant's Review Report.
b. Reviewed, No Accountant's Assurance Expressed.
c. See Accompanying Accountant's Footnotes.
d. Reviewed, No Material Modifications Required.
____ 4. A CPA may accept an engagement to apply agreed-upon procedures to prospective financial statements provided
a. All parties have agreed on the procedures to be applied.
b. The CPA has previously audited the entity for which the agreed-upon procedures are to be applied.
c. Users have participated in establishing the nature and scope of the engagement, distribution of the report is limited to the users involved, and the prospective statements include a summary of significant assumptions.
d. The set of agreed-upon procedures include, at a minimum, a study and evaluation of the existing internal control.
____ 5. The statement that "nothing came to our attention which would indicate that these statements are not fairly presented" expresses which of the following?
a. Disclaimer of an opinion.
b. Negative assurance.
c. Negative confirmation.
d. Piecemeal opinion.
____ 6. Which of the following is not a distinction between a compilation and a review?
a. The CPA must be independent as a prerequisite to performing a review engagement, but need not be independent to perform a compilation.
b. In conducting a review, the CPA must obtain an understanding of the client's internal control system; but this is not necessary for a compilation engagement.
c. Analytical procedures are applied in a review engagement, but are not required in a compilation.
d. A compilation offers no assurance, whereas a review provides limited assurance.
____ 7. During a compilation of a non-public entity's financial statements, an accountant would be least likely to
a. Omit substantially all of the disclosures required by generally accepted accounting principles.
b. Issue a compilation report on one or more, but not all, of the basic financial statements.
c. Perform analytical procedures designed to identify relationships that appear to be unusual.
d. Read the compiled financial statements and consider whether they appear to include adequate disclosure.
____ 8. When an independent CPA is associated with the financial statements of a publicly held entity but has not audited or reviewed such statements, the appropriate form of report to be issued must include a(an)
a. Compilation report.
b. Disclaimer of opinion.
c. Unaudited association report.
d. Qualified opinion.
____ 9. When an auditor issues an unqualified opinion on an entity's internal control, it is implied that the
a. Entity has not violated provisions of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
b. Likelihood of management fraud is minimal.
c. Financial records are sufficiently reliable to permit the preparation of financial statements.
d. Entity's internal control system is in conformity with criteria established by its audit committee.
____ 10. Which of the following statements best distinguishes a forecast from a projection?
a. A forecast contains one or more hypothetical assumptions, whereas a projection reflects conditions expected to exist.
b. A projection is appropriate for general distribution to third parties, whereas a forecast is more tentative and should be restricted to those parties with whom the client is negotiating directly.
c. The CPA may review a financial forecast, but may only compile a projection.
d. A forecast reflects conditions expected to exist, whereas a projection presents financial position, results of operations, and cash flows given one or more hypothetical assumptions.
____ 11. If an accountant concludes that unaudited financial statements on which the accountant is disclaiming an opinion also lack adequate disclosure, the accountant should suggest appropriate revision. If the client does not accept the accountant's suggestion, the accountant should
a. Issue an adverse opinion and describe the appropriate revision in the report.
b. Make reference to the appropriate revision and issue a modified report expressing limited assurance.
c. Describe the appropriate revision to the financial statements in the accountant's disclaimer of opinion.
d. Accept the client's inaction because the statements are unaudited and the accountant has disclaimed an opinion.
____ 12. An accountant who reviews the financial statements of a non-public entity should issue a report stating that a review
a. Is substantially less in scope than an audit.
b. Provides negative assurance that the internal control system is functioning as designed.
c. Provides only limited assurance that the financial statements are fairly presented.
d. Is substantially more in scope than a compilation.
____ 13. Which of the following should not be included in an accountant's standard report based upon the compilation of an entity's financial statements?
a. A statement that a compilation is limited to presenting in the form of financial statements information that is the representation of management.
b. A statement that the compilation was performed in accordance with standards established by the American Institute of CPAs.
c. A statement that the accountant has not audited or reviewed the financial statements.
d. A statement that the accountant does not express an opinion but expresses only limited assurance on the financial statements.
____ 14. Of the following statements, which one is not a precondition for performing attest services?
a. The practitioner must be a certified public accountant.
b. The practitioner must have adequate knowledge of the subject matter.
c. There are reasonable measurement and disclosure criteria concerning the subject matter.
d. The assertions are capable of reasonably consistent estimation or measurement using such criteria.
____ 15. In which of the following reports should a CPA not express negative or limited assurance?
a. A standard compilation report on financial statements of a non-public entity.
b. A standard review report on financial statements of a non-public entity.
c. A standard review report on interim financial statements of a public entity.
d. A standard comfort letter on financial information included in a registration statement of a public entity.
____ 16. In accordance with SEC requirements, a publicly held company has included interim financial information in its annual report to shareholders. The independent auditor has examined the annual financial statements and believes that they fairly present financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. The auditor, however, has not applied limited procedures to the interim data. In drafting the audit report covering the annual financial statements, therefore, the independent auditor should
a. Qualify the audit opinion for a scope limitation, given failure to apply the limited procedures.
b. Issue an unqualified opinion on the financial statements followed by an explanatory paragraph stating that the procedures were not applied.
c. Disclaim an opinion given the material impact of the interim financial information.
d. Qualify the audit opinion and describe the limited procedures in a separate paragraph explaining the scope restriction.
____ 17. Comfort letters are ordinarily signed by the
b. Client's lawyer.
c. Independent auditor.
d. Internal auditor.
____ 18. Before performing a review of a non-public entity's financial statements, an accountant should
a. Complete a series of inquiries concerning the entity's procedures for recording, classifying, and summarizing transactions.
b. Apply analytical procedures to provide limited assurance that no material modifications should be made to the financial statements.
c. Obtain a sufficient level of knowledge of the accounting principles and practices of the industry in which the entity operates.
d. Inquire whether management has omitted substantially all of the disclosures required by generally accepted accounting principles.
____ 19. The objective of a review of interim financial information is to provide the accountant with a basis for reporting whether
a. A reasonable basis exists for expressing an updated opinion regarding the financial statements that were previously audited.
b. Material modifications should be made to conform with generally accepted accounting principles.
c. The financial statements are presented fairly in accordance with standards of interim reporting.
d. The financial statements are presented fairly in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
____ 20. Which of the following procedures is not necessary in conducting a review of interim financial information?
a. Inquiry concerning the accounting system and any changes in internal control.
b. Application of analytical procedures to the interim information.
c. Inquiry of and obtaining written representations from management concerning its responsibility for the financial information and other matters.
d. Confirmation of significant customer accounts receivable as of the interim balance sheet date.
____ 21. The accountant's report expressing an opinion on an entity's internal control would not include a
a. Brief explanation of the broad objectives and inherent limitations of internal control.
b. Specific date that the report covers, rather than a period of time.
c. Statement that the entity's control system is consistent with that of the prior year after giving effect to subsequent changes.
d. Description of the scope of the engagement.
____ 22. Comfort letters are ordinarily addressed to
a. The Securities and Exchange Commission.
b. Underwriters of securities.
c. Creditor financial institutions.
d. The client's audit committee.
____ 23. Which of the following should be included in an accountant's standard report based upon the review of a non-public entity's financial statements?
a. A statement that the review was performed in accordance with generally accepted review standards.
b. A statement that a review consists principally of inquiries and analytical procedures.
c. A statement that the accountant is independent with respect to the entity.
d. A statement that a review is substantially greater in scope than a compilation.
____ 24. Engagements for the purpose of expressing an opinion on internal control differ from the CPA's evaluation of internal control as part of a financial audit in that
a. In an engagement to express an opinion, the CPA is examining and reporting on controls as of a specified date, whereas in conducting a financial audit, the CPA frequently tests controls for effectiveness over the period covered by the financial statements.
b. In conducting a financial statement audit, the CPA expresses an opinion as to the operating effectiveness of the client's internal control system, whereas in an engagement to express an opinion on internal control, the CPA addresses design and implementation of control structure.
c. In conducting a financial statement audit, the CPA is concerned with general controls only, whereas in an engagement to express an opinion on internal control, the CPA tests both general and application controls.
d. Scope limitations that affect a financial audit are irrelevant in an engagement to express an opinion on internal control.
____ 25. Each page of the financial statements compiled by an accountant should include a reference such as
a. See accompanying accountant's footnotes.
b. Unaudited, see accountant's disclaimer.
c. See accountant's compilation report.
d. Subject to compilation restrictions.
____ 26. The CPA is asked to audit financial statements prepared on a modified cash basis. This is acceptable provided the CPA
a. Converts the financial statement to an accrual basis before rendering an audit report.
b. Qualifies the audit opinion for a departure from GAAP.
c. Issues an adverse opinion.
d. States clearly in the audit report that fairness was evaluated within the framework of the other basis rather than GAAP.
____ 27. A modification of the CPA's report on a review of the interim financial statements of a publicly-held company would be necessitated by which of the following?
a. An uncertainty.
b. Lack of consistency.
c. Reference to another accountant.
d. Inadequate disclosure.
____ 28. Accepting an engagement to compile a financial projection for a publicly held company most likely would be inappropriate if the projection were to be distributed to
a. A bank with which the entity is negotiating for a loan.
b. A labor union with which the entity is negotiating a contract.
c. The principal stockholder, to the exclusion of the other stockholders.
d. All stockholders of record as of the report date.
____ 29. When an independent accountant issues a comfort letter to an underwriter containing comments on data that have not been audited, the underwriter most likely will receive
a. A disclaimer on prospective financial statements.
b. A limited opinion on "pro forma" financial statements.
c. Positive assurance on supplementary disclosures.
d. Negative assurance on capsule information.
____ 30. Which of the following professional services would be considered an attest engagement?
a. A management consulting engagement to provide CBIS advice to a client.
b. An engagement to report on compliance with statutory requirements.
c. An income tax engagement to prepare federal and state tax returns.
d. The compilation of financial statements from a client's accounting records.
____ 31. The accountant's report expressing an opinion on an entity's internal control should state that the
a. Establishment and maintenance of internal control is the responsibility of management.
b. Objectives of the client's internal control are being met.
c. Study and evaluation of internal control was conducted in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards.
d. Inherent limitations of the client's internal control structure were examined.
____ 32. Which of the following procedures would most likely be included in a review engagement of a non-public entity?
a. Preparing a bank transfer schedule.
b. Inquiring about related party transactions.
c. Assessing the internal control structure.
d. Performing cutoff tests on sales and purchases transactions.
____ 33. An accountant should not submit unaudited financial statements to the management of a non-public company unless, at a minimum, the accountant
a. Assists in adjusting the books of account and prepares the trial balance.
b. Types or reproduces the financial statements on plain paper.
c. Complies with the standards applicable to compilation engagements.
d. Applies analytical procedures to the financial statements.
____ 34. A CPA in public practice must be independent in fact and appearance when providing which of the following services?
Preparation of a of personal
of a financial financial
tax return forecast statements
a. Yes No No
b. No Yes No
c. No No Yes
d. No No No