American Literature Links II

| Historical, General | Mark Twain and Huckleberry Finn | Realism & Regionalism | Joel Chandler Harris | Charles W. Chesnutt | Sarah Orne Jewett | Mary E. Wilkins Freeman | Kate Chopin | Henry James & Daisy Miller | Willa Cather | Modernism | Carl Sandburg | Robert Frost | Ezra Pound | H. D. [Hilda Doolittle] | T. S. Eliot | Imagism | Amy Lowell | Wallace Stevens | William Carlos Williams | The Armory Show | Ernest Hemingway | Marianne Moore | E. E. Cummings | Langston Hughes | Harlem Renaissance | F. Scott Fitzgerald | Elizabeth Bishop | Robert Lowell | Allen Ginsberg | Walt Whitman | Emily Dickinson | The National Portrait Gallery | Sources for Texts | Composition & Citation Advice |

Historical, General:

Digital History Online Textbook: The Gilded Age

Digital History readings on Reconstruction

PAL: Perspectives in American Literature (Paul Reuben)

American Authors (Donna Campbell, Washington State University)

American Literature Sites (Donna Campbell)

Becoming Modern: America in the 1920s (National Humanities Center) 
Huck Finn learns about Moses
Huck Finn's Education (1884)

Mark Twain (1835–1910) and Huckleberry Finn

Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens)

Samuel L. Clemens (Mark Twain) (Donna Campbell’s links page)  

Mark Twain in His Times (Stephen Railton, UVA)

Mark Twain at Large: His Travels Here and Abroad (UC Berkeley)

Forget What You Know of Twain, Then Delight in Your Rediscovery [Edward Rothstein, New York Times, Sept. 17, 2010]

Twain and Race:

"New Edition of Huckleberry Finn Will Eliminate Offensive Words" [Mark Memmott, NPR Culture blog, January 4, 2011]

"Publisher Tinkers with Twain" [Julie Bosman, New York Times, January 4, 2011]

"For John Ridley, The N-Word Is A Line In The Sand" [NPR, August 20, 2010]

Was Jim of Huckleberry Finn a Hero?” (NPR)

Masterpiece or Racist Trash? Bridgewater Students Enter the Debate over Huckleberry” (Barbara Apstein)

Mark Twain, "The United States of Lyncherdom" (1901, Albert Bigelow Paine’s 1923 version)

Mark Twain, "The United States of Lyncherdom" (1901, Terry Oggel’s corrected 2000 version)

Joseph McCullough, Review of Terry Oggel’s revised edition of Twain’s essay “The United States of Lyncherdom”:

Huckleberry Finn:

Huckleberry Finn homepage (Texts, Illustrations, advertisements, Twain's book tour, etc. Stephen Railton, UVA)

Brief Quotations: Critics on Huck Finn (Donna Campbell)

"Sam Clemens at the Cotton Club: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" (Bill Benzon) [Excellent blog post sorting out some of the complications of the ending of the novel. From The Valve.]

Julia A.Moore (poet who inspired Twain's character Emmeline Grangerford--see Huck Finn, chapter 17)

Illustrations to Huckleberry Finn:

Illustrating Huckleberry Finn:

(with a “Gallery of Illustrations”):

Representing Jim:

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn slide show: (UC Berkeley)

E. W. Kemble Illustrations in context: Huckleberry Finn Part 1, Chapters I to V (Project Gutenberg)

E. W. Kemble Illustrations in context: Huckleberry Finn, Part 2, Chapters VI to X (Project Gutenberg)

E. W. Kemble Illustrations in context: Huckleberry Finn, Part 3, Chapters XI to XV (Project Gutenberg)

E. W. Kemble Illustrations in context: Huckleberry Finn, Part 4, Chapters XVI to XX (Project Gutenberg) 

E. W. Kemble Illustrations in context: Huckleberry Finn, Part 5, Chapters XXI to XXV (Project Gutenberg)

E. W. Kemble Illustrations in context: Huckleberry Finn, Part 6, Chapters XXVI to XXX (Project Gutenberg)

E. W. Kemble Illustrations in context: Huckleberry Finn, Part 7, Chapters XXXI to XXXV (Project Gutenberg)

E. W. Kemble Illustrations in context: Huckleberry Finn, Part 8 Chapters XXXVI to The Last (Project Gutenberg)

Realism , Regionalism, and Local Color 

"Late Nineteenth Century and Realism: A Brief Introduction" (PAL)

Realism in American Literature, 1860-1890 (Donna Campbell)

Regionalism and Local Color Fiction, 1865-1895 (Donna Campbell)

Plantation Tradition in Local Color Fiction
(Donna Campbell)

Joel Chandler Harris (1848-1908) and Uncle Remus

Joel Chandler Harris (1848-1908) (Donna Campbell)

Uncle Remus, His Songs and His Sayings (1881 edition; UNC)

Illustration to the Tar Baby story (UNC)

Charles W. Chesnutt (1858-1932)

Charles W. Chesnutt (1858-1932) (Donna Campbell)

Charles Waddell Chesnutt (PAL)

The Charles W. Chesnutt Digital Archive  

Sarah Orne Jewett (1849-1909)

Sarah Orne Jewett (1849-1909) (Donna Campbell)

The Sarah Orne Jewett Text Project (Introduction to Jewett, Texts & Criticism)

Mary E. Wilkins Freeman (1852-1930)

Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman (1852-1930)

"Literary Women In Their Homes II — Mary Eleanor Wilkins"  (From The Ladies' Home Journal, August 1892 )


Cover of A New England Nun and Other Stories (1891)

Kate Chopin (1850-1904)

Text of "At The 'Cadian Ball" (UNC)

Kate Chopin "At the 'Cadian Ball" (characters, setting, questions, and further reading)

Kate Chopin "The Storm" (characters, setting, questions, and further reading)

Kate Chopin (1850-1904) (Donna Campbell)

Kate Chopin International Society

Henry James (1843-1916) & Daisy Miller

Henry James (Donna Campbell, WSU)

Reading Questions on Henry James's Daisy Miller (Donna Campbell, WSU)

Text of Daisy Miller (with 1892 illustrations)

Willa Cather (1873-1947)

Willa Cather Archive
Annotated text of My Ántonia (WCA)
Text of "Peter" (1892) [An early Cather story about the suicide of a Bohemian immigrant]
"A Talk with Miss Cather" (Webster County Argus, 29 September 1921)
"Willa Siebert Cather" (Bookman, 3 May 1921)

Modernism Links

The Modernist Journals Project  

A Brief Guide to Modernism ( 

Becoming Modern: America in the 1920s (National Humanities Center) 

Beinecke Library exhibit on American Women in the Arts 

Charles Sheeler and Paul Strand, Manhatta (1921) A short silent film (9-10 minutes, with titles from Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass)  

Modernism and the Modern Novel  

Christopher Witcombe's Modernism site (mostly about visual art):

Index of Modernist Magazines   

Paris Review Interviews (Alphabetical by subject: among those interviewed are Ezra Pound, T. S. Eliot, and Ernest Hemingway)

Carl Sandburg (1878-1967)

Carl Sandburg (MAPS)

Carl Sandburg at (Academy of American Poets)

Selected Poetry of Carl Sandburg (RPO)

Robert Frost (1874-1963)

Robert Frost page (MAPS)
Interpretations of "Mending Wall" (MAPS)
Interpretations of "Home Burial" (MAPS)
Interpretations of "Birches" (MAPS)
Robert Frost (Poetry Foundation)
Robert Frost at (Academy of American Poets)
Selected Poetry of Robert Frost (RPO)

Ezra Pound (1885-1972)

H. D. [Hilda Doolittle] (1886-1961)

H.D. at MAPS 
H.D. at
Selected Poetry of H. D. (RPO)
H. D. (Hilda Doolittle) (American Women in the Arts)
H.D. at

T. S. Eliot (1888-1965)

T. S. Eliot at the MAPS site 

The Prufrock Papers” [Hypertext Prufrock with the text of Prufrock and Other Observations (1917), reviews, and TSE's criticism

Selected Poetry of Thomas Stearns Eliot (Representative Poetry Online, Ian Lancashire, U of Toronto)  


"Rhapsody on a Windy Night"

"The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"

The Waste Land

TSE reads The Waste Land (Harper Audio, via IMS)

T. S. Eliot (

What the Thunder Said: a T. S. Eliot site

Exploring The Waste Land (R A. Parker)

The T. S. Eliot Society (USA)

An Interactive Waste Land Site (too many pop up ads but an interesting hypertext approach):
Imagism (1912-1917)
Amy Lowell (1874-1925)

Amy Lowell at the MAPS site

Amy Lowell's Poems in Some Imagist Poets: An Anthology (1915)

Amy Lowell on the cover of TIME magazine (1925)

Wallace Stevens (1879-1955 )

Wallace Stevens at the MAPS site

Wallace Stevens' "Anecdote of a Jar" (Al Filreis)

Criticism of Stevens' "Anecdote of a Jar" at the MAPS site

Black on Black 13: Stevens’ “Thirteen Ways,” illustrated and recited

Selected Poetry of Wallace Stevens (RPO)

William Carlos Williams (1883-1963)
The Figure 5 in Gold by Charles Demuth (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

W.C. W. at the MAPS site

W.C. W. at the Academy of American poets (

W.C. W. reads "To Elsie" (

Selected Poetry of William Carlos Williams (RPO)

Al Filreis' W. C. W. links:

The Armory Show
The Armory Show at 100: Artworks (New-York Historical Society)

The 1913 Armory Show (UVA)

1. Marcel Duchamp’s Nude Descending a Staircase (UVA) 

2. Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase (The Armory Show at 100) [Marcel Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase (1912) was the most controversial work in the Armory Show.]

Megan Fort, "The kind of man I'm giving the show for." A blog post on acquiring for the show another controversial work, Constantin Brancusi's Mlle. Pogany. [The Armory Show at 100: Modern Art and Revolution New-York Historical Society. blog post 24 Oct. 2013. Web.] 

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961)

Hemingway's Paris: An Online Seminar [Includes a Timeline of Ernest Hemingway in Paris]

Hemingway Foundation of Oak Park, IL (Hem's childhood home)

Michael Palin's Hemingway Adventure (companion to PBS show)  

The Hemingway Resource Center

Chapter 1 of Hemingway's Death in the Afternoon (1932)

Marianne Moore (1887-1972)
E. E. Cummings (1894-1962)

Spring: The Journal of the E. E. Cummings Society  

The Enormous Room (Links, notes, and study questions)

EEC at the MAPS site

E. E. Cummings (

E. E. Cummings (Poetry Foundation)

A short biography of Buffalo Bill (PBS)  

Langston Hughes (1902-1967)

Langston Hughes at 100 (Beinecke Library, Yale University)

Langston Hughes, "Christ in Alabama" [Contempo 1.13 (1 Dec. 1931)] (UNC)

Kevin Young, On Langston Hughes's "The Weary Blues" [Foreword to the 2015 reissue of Hughes' book, The Weary Blues (1926)]

Podcast: "When the Weary Blues Met Jazz." (Poetry Foundation) 

Langston Hughes at the MAPS site

Langston Hughes, "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain" (World History Archives). See also this version: "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain" (MAPS)

Langston Hughes (

Langston Hughes Cosmogram (Schomburg Center); "What Is a Cosmogram?"

Langston Hughes: A Voice for All People (University of Kansas Library--archived)

Harlem Renaissance

Harlem Renaissance - A Brief Introduction (PAL)

Alain Locke, "Enter the New Negro." [Survey Graphic (March 1925)] (National Humanities Center). This issue of the magazine, titled "Harlem: Mecca of the New Negro," was later "expanded  into  an  anthology, The New Negro, which became the manifesto of the Harlem Renaissance." This article became the introduction to that anthology.

Alain Locke, "Art or Propaganda?" [Harlem 1.1 (November 1928)] (National Humanities Center)

Alain Locke on Negro Spirituals ["Alain LeRoy Locke," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (23 March 2012). Web.]

F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940)

Excerpt from Fitzgerald's "The Crack-Up" (PBS)

Elizabeth Bishop (1911-1979)

Elizabeth Bishop (MAPS)

Elizabeth Bishop (

Elizabeth Bishop (Voices & Visions)

Robert Lowell (1917-1977)

Robert Lowell (MAPS)

Robert Lowell ( 

Allen Ginsberg (1926-1997)

Allen Ginsberg at the MAPS site

Ginsberg reading Howl, Parts I & II (

Ginsberg reading "A Supermarket in California" (

Archive of Ginsberg reading ( PennSound)

Walt Whitman  (1819-1892)

Whitman Song of Myself Study text  (American Transcendentalism Web)

Walt Whitman Archive:

Criticism at the Walt Whitman Archive:

One Life: Walt Whitman, a kosmos:

Revising Himself (LOC):

Whitman’s Notebooks (LOC):

Whitman and Transcendentalism (Thoreau visits Whitman in Brooklyn) (American Transcendentalism Web)

Gutenberg text of Leaves of Grass:

PAL Walt Whitman page:

Walt Whitman Links: 

Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)

Emily Dickinson International Society:

Dickinson’s herbarium:

The Emily Dickinson Journal: (Project Muse: to access off-campus, go to the GVSU library catalog).

Dickinson Electronic Archive:

Emily Dickinson Links:

PAL Emily dickinson page:

Emily Dickinson Museum:

A New Photo of Emily Dickinson?

How I Met and Dated Miss Emily Dickinson: An Adventure on eBay (Philip F. Gura):

The National Portrait Gallery

Past Exhibitions:

Josephine Baker, Image and Icon:

Sources for Electronic texts:
Composition & Citation Advice: | MLA Formatting and Style Guide MLA Formatting and Style Guide (Purdue OWL) | Citations and Other Useful Websites (GVSU Writing Center) | Citing Sources: MLA Style (GVSU Library) | Knight Cite (Calvin College Library) |